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Cloud Computing: Definition and History of Its Presence

When hearing the term ‘ Cloud Computing ‘ or ‘ cloud computing ‘, some of the common communities of technology are certainly confused about the meaning of it. So, find out the definition and history of Cloud Computing presence, both in the world and in Indonesia.

Not without cause, business people need to know the definition and history of Cloud Computing presence because it serves to drive business performance development.

Understanding Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing in the Indonesian language translates into cloud computing. ‘ Computing ‘ translates as combined utilization of computer technology, whereas ‘ clouds ‘ is a metaphor of the development of Internet-based infrastructure.

Harfiyah, the definition of Cloud Computing is defined as a set of technologies that typically form a Cloud environment. Rountree, however, Derrick; Castrillo, 2014 Assessing this group of technologies is not the core of Cloud Computing.

Cloud Computing is a new computing force in which resources are dynamically measured and often use the virtualization concepts provided by providers by utilizing Internet media.

Conceptually, the definition of Cloud Computing means storing and accessing data and programs over the Internet from a different location or using a computer from our computer’s hard drive. The main requirement in Cloud Computing concept is the presence of Internet to access data.

According to K. Chandrasekara in 2018, using Cloud Computing, you can access data or programs anywhere, anytime, and with any device.

According to Sullivan in 2009 in ‘ The Definitive Guide to Cloud Computing ‘, Cloud Computing is a model of service providing information technology to users flexibly with virtual servers, large scalability, and service management. This information Technology service can be used by organizations to simplify their business processes.

Herwin Anggeriana on 2011 in the journal ‘ Cloud Computing: Cloud computing ‘ assesses Cloud Computing is a new trend in the field of distributed computing where various parties can develop applications and services based on SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) on the Internet network.

Cloud Computing users can access services from a variety of devices such as PCS, laptops, and even smartphones without needing to have any other physical infrastructure. Users only need to hire a ‘ virtual infrastructure ‘ from a third-party provider.

IT providers provide services to users of the Cloud Computing platform with payment based on usage. The data in the service is stored on many cloud servers and the server pool forms the data center.

History of Cloud Technology presence

Based on its history, Cloud Computing is the result of gradual evaluation. The concept of merging computing resources through a global network is said to have originated in 1960, along with the emergence of the ‘ Intergalactic Computer Network ‘ by JCR Licklider.

He was also responsible for the development of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) in 1969. At that time he had the ideals that all human beings in the world should be able to connect and access programs and data from any means and anywhere.

Yet another view expressed Herwin Anggeriana in his book ‘ Cloud Computing: Cloud computing ‘. According to him, the underlying concept of Cloud Computing originated in the 1960’s.

At that time, John McCarthy, a computational expert from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) also known as one of artificial intelligence pioneers conveyed the idea that “a computing network will someday be public infrastructures, as well as electricity and telephones.”

In its development, Cloud Computing actually grows with the Internet and the Web. It is apparent that the main drivers of computing technology are the internet revolution.

In the 1990’s era, telecommunications companies began to offer VPN private network services with better quality, but lower cost. To balance server usage, they use network bandwidth, and then use the cloud symbol as the demarcation point hint between the provider and the user. Essentially, cloud computing extends the boundaries to shut down servers and network infrastructure.

Until finally in 1995, Larry Ellison, the founder of Oracle raised the idea of Network Computing as a campaign to sue the dominance of Microsoft who was then rampant Desktop Computing with Windows 95.

Ellison offers the idea that users do not need any operating system software that is lined up into their PC, but rather with Network Computing as a replacement for the desktop. But eventually the innovation disappeared because of the insufficient quality of the computer network, and the user re-chose the desktop PC.

As the performance of the computer network in the late 1990, born Network Computing successor concept, Application Service Provider (ASP), which offers access to certain application programs through the Web. The driving factor of this concept progress is the emergence of various hosting services and Web-based programming languages.

Until it finally emerged a new breakthrough called Cloud Computing that does not depend on a particular operating system, but only need to access the Internet and to the address of the site to run the required programs.

The popularity of cloud computing increasingly soars in the form of software as a service (SaaS) Salesforce.com in 1999. This Customer Relationship Management (CRM) application is regarded as the first trigger for enterprise applications running over the Internet.

Subsequent developments in 2005 Amazon Web Services launched Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Google App Engine, and IBM Blue Cloud Initiative Technologies. So, there is a Web Service site that is commercialized and allows individuals or small companies to hire servers in order to run their computer applications.

In Indonesia, there are also major players running the Cloud Computing-based business, such as the government-owned company PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia (Telkom) Tbk. Telkom provides the Cloud Computing service to meet the needs of users.